Posts Tagged With: translocation

On this day

Today (December 9th) is a special day for me. Five years ago today I recall walking down a snow covered mountain road holding one end of a wooden box that contained a fisher. Holding the other end of that box was Roger and right beside us walked Richard and Scott – also holding the ends of a box the held a fisher. Our destination was a small clearing in the forest where many of our friends, colleagues, and even members of the media awaited us. More precisely, they waited for the fishers. The two female fishers we carried in those boxes would be the first 2 fishers released as part of our translocation project onto the Stirling district. We placed the boxes near the edge of the clearing and opened the doors and waited, and then we waited a little more. All the humans eagerly waited for the fishers to emerge from those boxes, but the fishers had other ideas. I can’t say I blame them. Having a bunch of beady-eyed humans looking at you can’t be a fun situation for a fisher (or any other creature either I imagine). I suspect we all, especially the members of the media, had a great illusion that the fishers would emerge promptly and slowly, pose for a few pictures, and then saunter away at a leisurely pace while we snapped pictures and looked on in awe. The reality was quite the opposite as both fishers, in their turn, streaked out of their boxes as a flash of brown into this new place they we hoped they could make into a home. Seeing the fishers run off gave a sense of great accomplishment and wonder but also of great responsibility and future hard work. I suppose Scott provided the most sobering perspective of the day (to me anyway) when he simply said “There are now fishers in the northern Sierra”. Yep, there sure were and that meant that we had to keep track of them, study them and also move an additional 38 fishers over the next 2 years.

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Releasing a male fisher in December 2009

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Female fisher looking out of release box

Two years later on December 9th I was once again standing in a big circle of people waiting for fishers to come out of wooden boxes. Once again the media (see link for one article and some pictures) was there as well as friends and collaborators of the project. The outcome was much the same as fishers sat in the boxes refusing to leave and when they finally did they fled with extreme expediency. We released 2 females and 1 male, and they would be the last of the fishers translocated to Stirling. Not all the releases were met with media attention or lots of people milling around waiting to take pictures. In fact, most fishers were released with just 1 or 2 people looking on and waiting. Personally, I prefer a small release entourage. In all cases, the releases were the easiest part of the whole process.

It might take me an entire book to write about the tremendous effort that it took to get fishers to Stirling. There are myriad stories about trapping, handling, and transporting fishers. There are just as many about long meetings and phone calls where we considered all the risks and benefits and tried to decide the best course of action, and for each story I have the rest of our team might have 20 more. Yet, all those stories and experiences would only tell a small part of the entire story, because there were literally years of planning and discussion that went into developing and creating the project and the collaborations that made it all work. Most of that happening long before I ever even knew about the project. So, while I consider December 9th the birthday of the project we should always remember that it had a very long gestation as well, and that process went without fanfare or appreciation. The days we released fishers, and how those days came to be, are only one part, and perhaps the least important part, of what our project is all about.

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Some of the team handling a fisher before release

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Transport boxes full of fishers heading to Stirling

On December 10th, 2009, a day after we released the first fishers, Roger and I set out to find them. It was a mixed bag as we found one female within 1 km of the release point and had no luck finding the other. It took a few days, a few weeks actually, but we eventually found the other female. We tracked both of these females, as well as 7 other released in late December and January of 2010, throughout the spring. Both those two females survived and produced kits the first year as did most of the other females we tracked. Since that day we have spent nearly every day for 5 years looking for fishers to understand the specifics of how and where they live and reproduce. Of course, “we” isn’t Roger and I anymore. “We” is now a large number of folks that work, and have worked, in the field collecting data, and without them the project would not continue. It is also all the people behind the scenes and behind desks and telephones, in front of computers, in laboratories, and in many places and roles that make the project continue to work. The project would have failed a long time ago without all those many people and they all deserve a great deal of gratitude and appreciation. We continue looking for fishers and learning about their lives and ability to survive and reproduce on a landscape managed primarily for timber production. We don’t know everything, obviously, and though we’ve made great strides more information, time, and thinking is needed to fully understand the dynamics that drive fisher populations on Stirling. Nevertheless, five years later we know that there are STILL fishers in the northern Sierra Nevada.

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Warm winter nights….and happy endings.

When you wake up in the morning, you never really know what the day is going to have in store for you.  We do, after all, carve out our niche in the world by following the daily habits of small furry critters in a predominantly wild landscape.  We often grow attached to our fuzzy wards (how could we not?).  So when something in our data collection portends trouble for one of them, we mobilize to see what we can do.

Males that we capture and deem healthy enough to carry the weight sport ARGOS collars.  These collars communicate with orbiting satellites to determine the collar’s location and the satellites then relay location information via email right to my laptop.

There’s me in the corner!

Armchair biology.  Technology!  While this sounds like a road to obsolescence for field biologists, we still need to track the collar (and fisher) down when the data tells us something is amiss.  The collars are only on during certain times each day, and during this window the collar transmits once a minute to the satellites.  We’ve got a nifty receiver that lets us track it down via strength of the signal and distance from the collar as it transmits.

Male 190 was released in December 2011, and has been with us a little while.  He’s often seen at female den trees during mating season, and all in all, he’s just a sturdy, well built fellow.  It was distressing, therefore, to see some of the data from his collar suggest that he might no longer be with us.  To figure out if 190 was ok Julie and I looked into when the collar transmits and, lucky for us (sarcasm), it transmits from 5PM – 9PM and again from 1AM-5AM.  With the weather being wet as it has been for a time, we knew it was going to be an interesting hunt.  Just what we enjoy, if you can believe it.  We hoped for a dropped collar, and tried not to think about finding a carcass.  It was wet, getting dark, and we were heading into uncertain terrain.

Andria volunteered to go out hunting with me.  With the rain and the wet muddy roads, going in by truck was out of the question. Not to mention our only access was a long and partially closed road that would have required chainsaws, and more time (and daylight) than we could afford.  So ATVs were on the menu.  We knew the area we were headed to, and had a rough route planned (no one had visited this area since the rain, so all routes are tentative).  After dropping the trucks and heading out on the ATVs we began hearing the signal we had hoped for.  We continued on our pre-planned route, as a time or two doing this has taught me that signals broadcast up from a creek bottom can give misleading readings from a ridge top.  Along the way we had to move downed trees and rocks.

After getting all the way down to where our most recent data suggested 190 may be, we could hear no signals from the collar.  This had me daring to think that maybe, just maybe, he’s still alive – but somewhere other than where the recent points told us he might be.  We rushed as best we could back to the top of the ridge and posted up for a few minutes.  Lo and Behold, the signal boomed in to our receiver and continued to change in direction and intensity, quite quickly.  He was not far from where we randomly stopped, doing his thing and probably oblivious to our racket!  

Relief.   Elation.  High fives.  Back to the truck.  We were able to get out there, nose about, and determine that this guy is still hanging around, though probably weathering the worst of the rain in a tree hole somewhere, shielding the collar from reaching the satellites.  A good nights work, and home before 10PM.

 

UPDATE 2/15/2014:  Activity data from collar came through tonight and shows good readings across the board.  Sweet.

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A Single Hair

It might not look like much. In fact, you might not notice it at all. But a single hair is all Jesse Hogg needs to help tell an important story. Jesse is working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other project collaborators as a Klamath Basin Tribal Intern. Jesse began his work with us on the Eastern Klamath Study Area (EKSA) which straddles the California/Oregon border. The EKSA is one of several locations where project biologists captured and relocated fishers to the Stirling District of Sierra Pacific Industries. We are using non-invasive methods to monitor the fisher population of the EKSA to evaluate if the removal of the fishers we relocated was detrimental to the population. Jesse set, checked, and collected hair samples he found in devices designed to snag hair from local fishers. The genetic material stored in the root of hair can reveal an animal’s species and sex and characteristics used to identify unique individuals. After wrapping up a successful season, Jesse is now working in Stirling to help monitor radio-marked fishers.

The Klamath Basin Tribal Internship Program seeks to inspire young native community members to develop the technical skills required to monitor and manage species and habitats, to pursue college-level educational opportunities, and to succeed in conservation-focused careers. The program provides employment and professional development opportunities for members of six native communities of the Klamath Basin of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon.

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Miscellaneous Field Fun

The past few months have been diverse on the project for several reasons. Firstly, radio-tracking takes up a majority of the time spent in the field every week–checking in on up to 8 or 9 fishers a day in their respective territories means a lot of driving! However, before trapping started, finding radio-collared females was no problem, since we knew where each girl’s home ranges were. After the trapping frenzy this fall, it got a bit more hectic as all the females who were re-collared or new females who were fitted with collars began roving around the district like crazy, traveling several miles between days to different locations, and then moving again! However, it has since “settled down” quite a bit as all the females are beginning to settle nicely into their own ranges and are almost always found at any given time.

One of the other aspects of the project after the trapping frenzy of October/November was…yet more trapping! There are a few female fishers whose collars are dying, or who didn’t get captured during the first effort, that we are trying to catch before denning begins so we can check up on them (and give shiny new collars to!). So far, we have not had any luck catching “target” females but we did manage to catch a few incidental critters-as during the first bout of trapping!

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Here is a frisky spotted skunk…

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And a gray fox-

Ok, I can’t resist throwing in a female fisher captured from trapping in October! She is just too darn cute.

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As many of you may know, this is the driest California winter since records have started being kept. Despite this, about a month ago we did get a big dumping of snow, which halted field work for a few days while we waited for roads to be safe to drive again. This was an great change of pace as we were able to see tracks in the snow that we don’t often get to see.

Here is a monster of a black bear’s prints–and my size 8 boot to compare:

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Not far from this was a set of bobcat prints:

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After a while, the fun dissipates as the snow melts and all the prints meld together into an indistinguishable muddy mess. In some colder drainages, like this one on Big Chico Creek, the snow made the scenery quite enjoyable:

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But usually, there is always a “view of the day” no matter what the weather is like.

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In a few months, mother fishers will be denning and we will be able to see exactly where they will choose to rest with telemetry and motion-activated cameras-so stay tuned!

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Tracks, Hairs, and Bears, Oh My!

Tracking fishers using VHF telemetry is an extremely useful method for obtaining lots of different information about the animals, it’s also pretty fun! However, in order to implement this method, fishers must be trapped, handled, and fitted with a collar. As biologists, we love having the opportunity to work so closely with a species, but we also love the idea of gathering quality data without ever having to touch an animal. We call this type of data collection “non-invasive”, and it is the eventual goal of this project to use only non-invasive methods to monitor the fishers here on Stirling. In order to reach that goal, we recently ran a pilot study to test how well non-invasive techniques would work in collecting the information we need.

In mid-September, I ran this six week pilot study using track plate boxes fitted with hair snares (see “Field Methods” tab), as well as remote cameras. I placed 45 boxes and 15 cameras in the woods, spread throughout the western half of our district. I checked each box once every 6 to 8 days, collecting tracks, hair and photos that were left behind during that time. The baited boxes attracted lots of different visitors! Bears were especially fond of them; I commonly found the boxes ripped open and dragged away from where I placed them. Gray fox, squirrel, wood rat, ringtail, spotted skunk and even mountain lion are some of the other species I detected.

The most important visitors were the fishers, of course. Adult and juvenile animals, both male and female, investigated my boxes regularly. It appears the non-invasive methods will be a very useful tool for monitoring the fisher population here, and we plan on continuing the pilot study later this year. We are very excited to see what the data will tell us!

Below is a slideshow of images I captured using remote cameras during the study.

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Fisher Motion Pictures

Over the last few months, our cameras placed around fisher dens have captured loads and loads of pictures (over 18,000).  We often post some of the better photos to the blog, but there are many that don’t make the cut.  The main purpose of these cameras is to document kits, but in addition they collect all sorts of other information.  We often see various predator and prey species around the dens, males visiting during breeding season, mom bringing back food items, as well as many photos of females simply entering and leaving the den on their daily travels.

We sift through all of these photos, recording what is in each one.  Doing this gives us a little insight into life around the den.  When all the photos from a specific camera are strung together and played like a movie, they are pretty cool to see.  I’ve put together 3 short “motion pictures” from a few of the dens that we collected photos from (the links will take you to a Youtube video):

21392 – Over a month and a half of pictures from the natal den of this two-year-old fisher.  She is a native Stirling born fisher, believed to have had one kit this year.

21FB6 – Pictures from a maternal den of one of the year-2 translocated females.  This spring was her third time denning on Stirling.  This den was one of her maternal dens she first used back in 2011.

23955 – These photos are from a maternal den / rest tree found in mid-July, when the kits were pretty mobile.  23955 is also a native born fisher and this was her first time denning.

Enjoy!

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To Den Or Not To Den?

That is the question. That time of year is rapidly approaching once again, expectant mothers on and around Stirling will soon have to pick their spot and settle down to the task of raising kits. The den season, particularly the early rush to pinpoint natal dens (those in which a female gives birth as opposed to the maternal dens she will use later in the season) is one of our busiest periods on the ground and from a personal perspective, one of the more rewarding.

This will be the fourth season in which Fishers have denned on Stirling since the reintroduction began and again it offers some potential milestones for the project. We have already seen the birth of the first kits sired on the district, the one to watch out for this season is the potential to confirm the first litters born to females native to the district. Although it is very possible that this happened last year we were not actively tracking any females born on Stirling who were potentially reproductive during the 2012 den season. Currently we are tracking 4 such animals and barring any mishaps we expect to locate natal dens for each of them should they give birth this season.

From the table below you can see that this year we are tracking 11 females which we believe could reproduce. Besides the 4 animals mentioned previously we have 5 year 2 translocates, all of which have produced kits previously and 2 year 3 translocates, only one of which has reproduced before.

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Females with the potential to reproduce in 2013

As a point of comparison, ahead of the 2012 season we were tracking 10 potentially reproductive females, consisting of a spread of year 2 and year 3 translocates. Ultimately we confirmed natal dens for each one of these animals.

There is also a slight possibility that some of the 4 females we caught in the fall of 2012 and deemed to have been born that spring were actually born in 2011 and would therefore be able to reproduce this year. So, although we think this unlikely we will have to keep a close eye on what these animals are doing to be sure we don’t miss anything.

Doubtless you will see more from us as we start confirming dens and setting remote cameras. Over the first 3 years we have seen the den season really start to kickoff in late March with our median date of den confirmation (this date can sometimes be a day or 2 later than the kits actual date of birth) being March 30th. The majority of dens are generally found within a week or so around this date although our data shows a spread of about a month for the population as a whole. Our earliest record thus far is March 17th, only 1 week away!

Here is something you’ve seen before to whet your appetites.

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Hopefully new pictures will follow in the next month!

-CAB-

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Fisher Frenzy

Fall brings about a good time to try and trap fishers, and we have been very busy over the past month doing just that.  This intensive trapping effort of the Stirling district, dubbed “Fisher Frenzy”, finally concluded this past week.  The trapping that we conduct here serves many purposes (some of which will be discussed in future posts).  Importantly, it allows us to examine the condition of both juveniles and adults, and affix radio-collars on selected fishers so we can track them in the future.  This year, we split the trapping effort between two different sides of the study area, running the first 14 nights of trapping on the eastern portion of the study area, and the last 14 nights on the western side.  When we talk about different sides of the study area, we are using the north-south running Butte Creek as the divider.  This split has more to do with logistics than actual geography.  The sides are accessed from different highways (and getting across the creek is time consuming).

The beginning of this years’ event coincided with the first major storm of the fall, which soaked the lower elevations and left 1-2 feet of snow up in the higher areas of the study area.  This made for a challenging couple of days, and closed many of the traps temporarily.  Luckily, a dry spell followed which allowed us to get nearly everything re-opened, and over the two week period we were successful in capturing quite a number of animals.

On the east side, 16 individual fishers were trapped.  We captured a good mix of both adults and juveniles, males and females.  Total number of fisher captures on this side was 26, with a few animals being trapped more than once.  In addition to the fishers, we caught a variety of other mesocarnivores in the traps.

After the first two weeks we left our comfortable accommodations (the former SPI office in Stirling City) to camp out on western side of the study area.  Again we got a fair amount of rain and a bit of snow, but caught a good number of fishers on this side as well.  Over the final 14 days, we were able to capture 13 individual fishers (17 total).

In addition to only looking at fishers, this year some of the folks from the CDFG Wildlife Investigation Lab and the Integral Ecology Research Center came out to do examinations of some of the other animals that we catch.  Spotted skunks, ringtails, and grey foxes were processed, with the general purpose to look at disease exposure in fishers and these other forest mesocarnivores.

Overall, we are pretty pleased with the way things went.  Between both sides, we caught a total of 29 individual fishers during 28 days.  We know that we failed to capture a few animals (those with collars which are still working), but that is expected.  Some of the animals are in areas that were hard to get to (especially after the first snow), and some seem to just be very trap shy.  Now we have the task of keeping track of all these new animals, and it will be interesting to find out where some of these younger animals will end up living.

Over the entire month, we ran somewhere in the neighborhood of 2500 trap nights.  This was a massive effort that could not have been done without the help of many people.  Specifically, we got some much needed labor from Sierra Pacific Industries, as well as the use of the old Stirling City office so we didn’t have to completely rough it for a month.  US Fish and Wildlife provided many helping hands, as well as a life-saving wall tent and stove in the latter parts of trapping.  Among many other things, Fish and Game provided the mobile lab which made processing fishers less stressful than working them up out in the field. A huge thank you to everyone who came out to lend a hand!

Here are some pictures of the event.  Enjoy!

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Curiosity killed the cat (sometimes)

Now that we can see the other side of summer we begin preparing for the fall. Last fall we had an extensive trapping session on Stirling where we recaptured a number of our reintroduced fishers as well as several kits. To effectively use our traps we need to have as much information as we can get about where fishers are or where they might be. A big part of getting that information is using our cameras to detect fishers in areas that we might not trap otherwise.

In the last few weeks we have begun deploying our cameras to different parts of Stirling. We will sample an areas for about 4 weeks and them move on to a new area. Cameras are checked once a week and the station is re-baited with chicken (held in a bait sock) and gusto. While going through some of these photos I noticed a black  bear visiting one of the stations. No surprise there since bears come to bait stations quite often, and in fact we find them something of  a burden when they destroy cameras. In this sequence, however, I noticed something else. A black shadow off in the background of the picture -with eyes. Closer inspection shows it to be just an ordinary black cat, but what it was doing at a bait station while a bear was there is a real mystery. It almost appears that the cat is just watching the bear almost contemplating pouncing upon it? Eventually, the bear notices the cat and it kind of wanders away, but never very far.

In this case curiosity didn’t kill the cat (that we can tell), but it demonstrates the interesting, and sometimes weird, things that go on out in the woods. No, its not the find of the century, but its puzzling and a for me kind of amusing. I’d be interested to know what the cat was thinking. Maybe the whole incident was just coincidence.

A cat (red circle in background) watches a bear at a baited camera station

 

Bear sees a cat a bait station

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Where There’s Smoke…

You just never know what will happen while you are out tracking fishers.

Yesterday while returning from tracking female 20058 (she lives in between Mill and Deer creeks) we noticed a black plume of smoke. Initially, I wanted to think it was just a large cloud hanging low on the horizon, but since I hadn’t seen a cloud all day I knew this was not true. Sure enough it was a small fire that was burning just north of Deer creek not far from HWY 32.

Well, it is seemed small, and relatively speaking it was, but it sure put out a lot of smoke. The wind picked up from time to time and really caused some large flare-ups. I’m unsure how much time passed from when the fire started until we saw it but it couldn’t have been more than 1o minutes. Within 20 minutes after seeing the smoke personnel from the Forest Service and Cal Fire were responding to the fire. Within an hour helicopters and airplanes were tending to the blaze. I was really amazed, and impressed,with the response times of the folks that were fighting the blaze.

Fortunately, this fire, which appears largely contained this morning, was not particularly close to any of the fishers were are currently tracking particularly those that have kits. Though there are very likely other fishers in this area that we are not tracking. Still, it serves as a reminder that fires are very real dangers to fishers in general, but also to the translocation. One particularly severe fire might have very dire consequences for this incipient population.

Plume of smoke

Large Flame

Dousing the flames

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